Exploring credibility gaps in Voluntary Partnership Agreements: A review of independent monitoring initiatives and lessons to learn

October 11, 2013
Duncan Brack and Claudine Léger

Independent forest monitoring has been a feature of international efforts to improve forest governance and reduce illegal logging since the 1990s. This study considers the role of independent monitoring, involving civil society, in the context of the voluntary partnership agreements (VPAs) now taking shape between the European Union and timber-producing developing countries under the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan.



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