Agricultural commodity consumption in the EU - Beef
May 26, 2018

Forests in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, all members of the Mercosur trade bloc, are being destroyed on an epic scale to make way for cattle. Beef production is the largest driver of global deforestation. With three quarters of its beef imports coming from countries in Mercosur, the European Union (EU) has a special responsibility to ensure its policies have a positive impact on forests and forest communities in South America, which must be reflected in negotiations with Mercosur about a new trade deal. This is the fourth in a series of Fern briefings on the commodities that drive deforestation.

This is the fourth in a series of background notes on agricultural commodities.

Briefing notes in this series:

Palm oil soy fact   Soy fact sheet  cocoa Beef

 

-----------------

References for the findings in this briefing note:
  1. http://beef2live.com/story-world-cattle-inventory-ranking-209-countries-fao-247-127843
  2. US Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service data for 2017. Source: http://beef2live.com/story-world-beef-production-ranking-countries-0-106885
  3. http://beef2live.com/story-world-beef-production-ranking-countries-0-106885
  4. Agricultural Commodity Supply chains: Trade Consumption and Deforestation, Brack et al, Chatham House, 2016: https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/publications/research/2016-01-28-agricultural-commodities-brack-glover-wellesley.pdf
  5. Data drawn from:  http://beef2live.com/story-world-beef-exports-ranking-countries-0-106903 and http://beef2live.com/story-world-beef-production-ranking-countries-0-106885
  6. http://beefandlamb.ahdb.org.uk/market-intelligence-news/paraguayan-beef-exports-increase/
  7. Meat and Seafood Production, Hannah Ritchie and Max Rosser, 2017: https://ourworldindata.org/meat-and-seafood-production-consumption
  8. 8- Calculated from United States Department of Agriculture / Foreign Agricultural Service data for 2017 and 2007, available at https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/livestock_poultry.pdf and http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/fas/livestock-poultry-ma//2000s/2009/livestock-poultry-ma-04-16-2009.pdf
  9. Brack et al, Chatham House, 2016, op cit.
  10. Brack et al, Chatham House, 2016, op cit.
  11. Sabine Henders et al, Trading Forests: Land-Use Change and Carbon Emissions Embodied in Production and Exports of Forest-Risk commodities, Sabine Henders, U Martin Persson and Thomas Kastner, December 2015, Environmental Research Letters: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/125012/meta
  12. Illegal Deforestation Monitor, Beef Profile, 2016: http://www.bad-ag.info/commodities/dolor/
  13. WWF Living Forests Report, Chapter 5, Saving Forests at Risk, 2015: http://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/living_forests_report_chapter_5_1.pdf
  14. Land-use and  Agriculture in the Amazon, Global Forest Atlas, Yale  School of Forestry and Environmental Studies: https://globalforestatlas.yale.edu/amazon/land-use
  15. Figures in this section are calculated from Brazil National Institute of Space Research (INPE) data, mostly available:  https://rainforests.mongabay.com/amazon/deforestation_calculations.html
  16. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/mar/01/brazil-amazon-protection-laws-invite-deforestation-ngo
  17. Peter Veit and Ryan Sarsfield, Land Rights, Beef Commodity Chains, and Deforestation Dynamics in the Paraguayan Chaco, USAID, 2017: https://land-links.org/research-publication/land-rights-beef-commodity-chains-and-deforestation-dynamics-in-the-paraguayan-chaco/
  18. https://www.ecoamericas.com/issues/displayArticleFromSearch/2018/3/E68C743F-8009-4AD7-A35C-FC998CBCDFE5
  19. WWF Living Forests Report, Chapter 5, Saving Forests at Risk, 2015: http://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/living_forests_report_chapter_5_1.pdf
  20. V. De Sy et al, Land use patterns and related carbon losses following deforestation in South America, 2015, Environ. Res. Lett 124004:  http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/124004/meta
  21. Brack et al, Chatham House, 2016, op. cit.
  22. http://www.ipsnews.net/2011/07/brazil-small-scale-land-speculators-contribute-to-amazon-deforestation/
  23. https://www.wwf.org.br/?60466/An-Inside-View-of-Matopiba
  24. https://globalforestatlas.yale.edu/amazon/land-use/cattle-ranching
  25. https://www.seeker.com/one-cow-per-hectare-in-deforested-amazon-discovery-news-1765401847.html
  26. Sam Lawson, Consumer Goods and Deforestation, Forest Trends, 2014: https://www.forest-trends.org/wp-content/uploads/imported/for168-consumer-goods-and-deforestation-letter-14-0902-hr-no-crops_for-web-pdf.pdf
  27. https://www.iatp.org/documents/rise-big-meat-brazils-extractive-industry-executive-summary
  28. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-brazil-environment-deforestation/shady-slaughterhouses-cow-laundering-drive-spike-in-amazon-deforestation-idUSKBN19P1MS
  29. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/22/world/americas/brazil-meat-industry-scandal-exports.html?_r=1
  30. https://news.mongabay.com/2016/10/violence-against-indigenous-people-high-as-land-conflicts-heat-up/
  31. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/may/01/brazilian-farmers-attack-indigenous-tribe-machetes
  32. http://www.climatechangenews.com/2017/03/14/beef-caucus-takes-indigenous-policies-brazil/
  33. https://land-links.org/research-publication/land-rights-beef-commodity-chains-and-deforestation-dynamics-in-the-paraguayan-chaco/
  34. Brack et al, Chatham House, 2016, op cit.
  35. https://land-links.org/research-publication/land-rights-beef-commodity-chains-and-deforestation-dynamics-in-the-paraguayan-chaco/
  36. Forest 500, 2017 Annual Report: https://forest500.org/sites/default/files/related-documents/f500-annual-web_1.pdf
  37. Brack et al, Chatham House, 2016, op cit.
  38. Forest conservation effects of Brazil's zero deforestation cattle agreements undermined by leakage, Jennifer Alix-Garcia, Holly K. Gibbs, Global Environmental Change 47,2017: https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/global-environmental-change/vol/47
  39. Beef and Veal Market Situation, March 2018: https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sites/agriculture/files/market-observatory/meat/beef/doc/market-situation_en.pdf
  40. http://beefandlamb.ahdb.org.uk/market-intelligence-news/italian-beef-imports-increase/
  41. Beef and Veal Market Situation, March 2018: https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sites/agriculture/files/market-observatory/meat/beef/doc/market-situation_en.pdf
  42. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/22/world/americas/brazil-meat-industry-scandal-exports.html?_r=1
  43. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=1769
Relevant Campaigns:
Relevant Work Areas: